Meditating on food in order to eat less of it

By Judy Foreman, The Baltimore Sun, July 15, 2005

Baltimore, MD (USA) -- So there we sat, 28 of us, on a recent summer evening, munching ever so slowly on, and paying exquisite attention to, the surprisingly complex tastes and textures of gorp, that mixture of dried fruit and nuts so popular with hikers.

"Notice whether you're already salivating," prompted the workshop instructor, Jean Fain, a psychotherapist and teaching associate at Harvard Medical School, as we held our chosen dried cranberries, cashews or almonds in our fingers. "Slowly, very slowly, begin to notice the taste, the texture. Allow yourself to feel pleasure as you chew."

I do, and am struck by the difference between this tranquil, Buddhist moment - my entire focus on one little cranberry - and the way, half an hour earlier, I had wolfed down my calzone in the car, barely tasting it.

The first cranberry gave me a burst of sweetness, the second a small blast of tanginess. The cashew, unsalted, was boring. Who knew? The point of this workshop, Fain said, was to apply some of the techniques of mindfulness meditation, like quieting the mind by focusing on the breath, to the process of eating and, ultimately, weight control.

The approach is so unusual and potentially such a useful weapon in the war on obesity that the National Institutes of Health is spending $1.8 million over four years on studies at three universities around the country.

Dr. David Heber, director of the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, supports the idea, particularly for people for whom certain foods are triggers for overeating. Meditation, he said, also should be "linked to a nutritional plan and an exercise plan."

Philosophically similar to the breezy book French Women Don't Get Fat by Mireille Guiliano, who advocates focusing on quality instead of quantity in food, the mindful eating program does not involve will power, dieting, counting calories or eschewing certain foods while chewing endlessly on others.

It does involve a very brief meditation to get "centered" before eating and involves eating with full attention - both "getting pleasure from food and noticing when you've had enough," said the originator of the program, psychologist Jean Kristeller of Indiana State University, who has studied meditation for decades.

Among other things, mindful eating means not gorging absent-mindedly while doing something else like watching TV or chattering away, and learning to tell when you feel full enough or that you've reached "taste-specific satiety."

This is the phenomenon by which, after four or five bites, taste buds lose their sensitivity to the chemicals in food that make it taste good. It is taste-specific satiety that explains why the first bites of chocolate taste better than later ones and why, when you cannot manage another bite of steak, you have plenty of enthusiasm for ice cream. Once you recognize that you're losing the pleasure of a certain taste, it's easier to stop eating it.

"Our culture is so externalized that we don't even realize what our body signals are," said clinical psychologist Ruth Quillian-Wolever from the Duke Center for Integrative Medicine. "When you teach people to be quiet enough to see what's going on inside, they can get an incredible amount of satisfaction from a small piece of chocolate."

To be sure, the published evidence in favor of mindful eating is slim.

Kristeller did a pilot study a few years ago of 18 obese women who binged, loosely defined as feeling out of control about eating and ingesting a huge amount of food in one session. Her team found that with meditation and coaching on skills like distinguishing real hunger from eating triggered by anger or boredom, bingeing dropped from an average of four times a week to one and a half. Participants also reported being less preoccupied with food.

Armed with a first grant of $250,000 from the government, Kristeller and Quillian-Wolever studied another 85 obese male and female bingers. They were randomly assigned to three groups. One went through the mindful eating program. The second received no intervention at all. The third, a control group, received no meditation training but did get the same amount of attention from teachers as the mindful group, using material from Duke's diet and fitness center.

The data are still unpublished but encouraging. Though neither the mindful eating nor the control group, on average, lost weight, both groups reduced bingeing substantially, compared with the nonintervention group.

On standardized psychological tests, the mindful eaters also reported feeling more in control around food. Just as important, the mindfulness program, even in people who lost no weight, was linked to lower fasting blood sugar levels and less insulin resistance, problems that often lead to diabetes.

"So we know it works to change eating patterns," said Quillian-Wolever. The next step is to figure out how to translate this into weight loss.

This summer, Kristeller, Quillian-Wolever and Dr. Michael Baime, director of the Penn Stress Management Program at the University of Pennsylvania, will begin to enroll about 225 obese people, some of them bingers, to see whether mindful eating plus coaching on portion control and other weight control tactics actually results in lasting weight loss. Baime also plans to use brain scans see what, if anything, is changing in the brains of people in the meditation group.

People can't sustain diets "if it's just will power," Baime said. "Meditation does not require will power at all. It requires awareness. If you actually listen to your body better, you'll know whether you're really hungry or not."

As for me? After the workshop, I must confess, I popped some chocolate chip cookies in the oven and, while they were baking, nibbled at the leftover raw dough.

But I was mindful - it was yummy!

We Need Your Help to Train the
Buddhist AI Chat Bot
(Neural Operator for Responsible Buddhist Understanding)

For Malaysians and Singaporeans, please make your donation to the following account:

Account Name: Bodhi Vision
Account No:. 2122 00000 44661
Bank: RHB

The SWIFT/BIC code for RHB Bank Berhad is: RHBBMYKLXXX
Address: 11-15, Jalan SS 24/11, Taman Megah, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor
Phone: 603-9206 8118

Note: Please indicate your name in the payment slip. Thank you.

Dear Friends in the Dharma,

We seek your generous support to help us train NORBU, the word's first Buddhist AI Chat Bot.

Here are some ways you can contribute to this noble cause:

One-time Donation or Loan: A single contribution, regardless of its size, will go a long way in helping us reach our goal and make the Buddhist LLM a beacon of wisdom for all.

How will your donation / loan be used? Download the NORBU White Paper for details.

For Malaysians and Singaporeans, please make your donation to the following account:

Account Name: Bodhi Vision
Account No:. 2122 00000 44661
Bank: RHB

The SWIFT/BIC code for RHB Bank Berhad is: RHBBMYKLXXX
Address: 11-15, Jalan SS 24/11, Taman Megah, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor
Phone: 603-9206 8118

Note: Please indicate your purpose of payment (loan or donation) in the payment slip. Thank you.

Once payment is banked in, please send the payment slip via email to: Your donation/loan will be published and publicly acknowledged on the Buddhist Channel.

Spread the Word: Share this initiative with your friends, family and fellow Dharma enthusiasts. Join "Friends of Norbu" at: Together, we can build a stronger community and create a positive impact on a global scale.

Volunteer: If you possess expertise in AI, natural language processing, Dharma knowledge in terms of Buddhist sutras in various languages or related fields, and wish to lend your skills, please contact us. Your knowledge and passion could be invaluable to our project's success.

Your support is part of a collective effort to preserve and disseminate the profound teachings of Buddhism. By contributing to the NORBU, you become a "virtual Bodhisattva" to make Buddhist wisdom more accessible to seekers worldwide.

Thank you for helping to make NORBU a wise and compassionate Buddhist Chatbot!

May you be blessed with inner peace and wisdom,

With deepest gratitude,

Kooi F. Lim
On behalf of The Buddhist Channel Team

Note: To date, we have received the following contributions for NORBU:
US$ 75 from Gary Gach (Loan)
US$ 50 from Chong Sim Keong
MYR 300 from Wilson Tee
MYR 500 from Lim Yan Pok
MYR 50 from Oon Yeoh
MYR 200 from Ooi Poh Tin
MYR 300 from Lai Swee Pin
MYR 100 from Ong Hooi Sian
MYR 1,000 from Fam Sin Nin
MYR 500 from Oh teik Bin
MYR 300 from Yeoh Ai Guat
MYR 300 from Yong Lily
MYR 50 from Bandar Utama Buddhist Society
MYR 1,000 from Chiam Swee Ann
MYR 1,000 from Lye Veei Chiew
MYR 1,000 from Por Yong Tong
MYR 80 from Lee Wai Yee
MYR 500 from Pek Chee Hen
MYR 300 from Hor Tuck Loon
MYR 1,000 from Wise Payments Malaysia Sdn Bhd
MYR 200 from Teo Yen Hua
MYR 500 from Ng Wee Keat
MYR 10,000 from Chang Quai Hung, Jackie (Loan)
MYR 10,000 from K. C. Lim & Agnes (Loan)
MYR 10,000 from Juin & Jooky Tan (Loan)
MYR 100 from Poh Boon Fong (on behalf of SXI Buddhist Students Society)
MYR 10,000 from Fam Shan-Shan (Loan)
MYR 10,000 from John Fam (Loan)
MYR 500 from Phang Cheng Kar
MYR 100 from Lee Suat Yee
MYR 500 from Teo Chwee Hoon (on behalf of Lai Siow Kee)
MYR 200 from Mak Yuen Chau

We express our deep gratitude for the support and generosity.

If you have any enquiries, please write to: